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Vulnerability scans and penetration test are often used interchangeably. Unfortunately, it is the improper use that creates confusions, sometimes around security decisions too. This article shall help the reader with these terms: penetration testing vs vulnerability scanning, their project inputs, outputs, security health indicators and decision making factors.
Let’s first look at the basics of why we need these exercises and what helps to make an informed choice around either or both. Whether you are interested in either or both assessments, keep the following three factors in mind that are influential to reach an informed decision.
- Assets criticality
- Target scope
What is the meaning of vulnerability assessment?
Vulnerability assessment is a method to identify and classify threats affecting an asset, i.e. a server, a workstation or a device. Cyphere’s vulnerability assessment service helps businesses to identify, quantify, and categorise security risks with ongoing support and guidance for their remediation.
What does a vulnerability scan do?
A vulnerability scan is a method to identify and report security vulnerabilities using software tools, known as vulnerability scanners.
Vulnerability assessment is a method to identify and classify threats affecting an asset, i.e. a server, a workstation or a device. Cyphere’s Vulnerability Assessment service helps businesses identify, quantify, and categorise security risks with ongoing support and guidance for their remediation.
Vulnerability scan vs Vulnerability Assessment
Don’t make a mistake of buying a vulnerability scan disguised as a vulnerability assessment. The vulnerability assessment process’s goal is to perform vulnerability scans and provide a list of vulnerabilities affecting your network, added with security expertise in removing false positives and explaining the attack impacts and likelihood of exploitation. When fed into the risk remediation process, this accuracy makes it a practical risk assessment for a business.
How many types of vulnerability assessment are there?
Vulnerability assessments are of three types. These are internal scans, external scans and host scans.
- Internal scans are aimed at identifying vulnerabilities within an internal network of an organisation. It could be a cloud network, network segment, a corporate network, or the entire organisation consisting of multiple networks (production, staging, corporate).
- External scans include the scope of internet-facing components that may consist of email, web, firewalls, applications/portals and websites.
- Host scans include vulnerability assessment aimed explicitly at a single or multiple hosts that serve as a database, web server, server, workstation or another function.
What is penetration testing?
A pentest is an ethical hacking exercise conducted to identify and exploit security vulnerabilities found within the agreed scope of networks, applications or devices. It is performed in a controlled manner to safely exploit weaknesses without adverse effects on the environment. Should you wish, a detailed read is here: penetration testing, it’s types, methodologies, engagement life cycle and costs.
Like vulnerability assessment types, multiple penetration testing assessments are conducted to assess various asset categories. These include:
- Web application and services/API pen testing
- External and Internal penetration testing
- Cloud Pen testing such as Azure, AWS or SaaS Security testing
- Mobile penetration testing
And so on…
Penetration testing methodologies
Penetration testing assessments are carried out in the following forms based on the level of knowledge and access granted by the customer.
- Black box penetration test: A black box pentest starts with no prior knowledge and access to the target. An example of such a test involves a website security assessment with no information and user access.
- Grey box penetration test: A grey box pentest involves some level of knowledge and access to the target. An example of such a test consists of a website security assessment with low-level user access.
- White box penetration test: A white box pentest is granted with the highest information and access level. An example of such a test involves a website security testing where multiple user levels including CMS admin and information such as security architecture, design document and/or source code access is supplied to the security consultant.
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What is the main difference between vulnerability scanning and penetration testing?
Vulnerability scanning takes an automated approach to identify common issues such as missing patches, misconfigurations and other common vulnerabilities. It does not cover the in-depth reviews such as exploitation of security vulnerabilities to determine the extent of risk. Vulnerability assessment results may contain false-positives, often considered a downside. Cost-wise this is the cheaper option amongst the two.
A pen test goes a step further by utilising a manual approach to safely exploit weaknesses, established if they are not just false positives and uncovers flaws such as businesses logic, lateral movements. It simulates real-world test cases aimed at assessing the technical risks in their entirety. Pen testing costs are higher compared to vulnerability assessment, with black box pen testing often the costliest part.
What are the benefits of a vulnerability assessment ?
- Understand your risks: By identifying vulnerabilities, misconfiguration and other security issues across networks and applications, this exercise provides an understanding of the attack surface and its exposures
- Audit changes: Vulnerability assessments help auditing patching and configuration changes that are a vital input for risk remediation process.
- Incident Management Input: Although not directly helpful in responding to incidents, vulnerability scan provides rich data around vulnerabilities and misconfigurations to help incident teams with investigations.
Usually, medium to large businesses opts for managed vulnerability scanning to leverage experience, minimise costs and maximise their limited security resources on priority tasks. A lifecycle of managed vulnerability scanning process involves different stages, as shown below.
59% of respondents have no set schedule or don’t scan for vulnerabilities
Independent study published by Ponemon Insitute, Dec 2018
What are the benefits of penetration testing?
- Proactive Approach: A proactive mindset towards cyber security is imperative to have effective results on your investments. Pentesting is the perfect approach to identify weaknesses and vulnerabilities before threat actors exploit them.
- Threat Protection: New threats are always on the horizon, it is critical to regularly assess everything in raw form – penetration testing approach provides this data from the ground.
- Develop your cybersecurity strategy: Cyber security can no longer be an afterthought. Cyber security strategy requires input information from technical security audits. The data gathered via penetration testing informs your strategy making and acts as the foundation for shaping IT and IT security plans.
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What is the concept of scanning in penetration testing?
Vulnerability scanning phase in penetration tests includes identification and analysis of security vulnerabilities using a vulnerability scanning software. This exercise is scheduled in automated fashion unless explicitly agreed to limited timescales with a customer.
Vulnerabilities identified during the scanning phase are analysed and adopted as a base for attack layout preparation. This is critical to the exploitation phase because performing exploitation on all the identified vulnerabilities without any vulnerability analysis may lead to crashes or other potential disruptions to the client environment.
Why is a penetration test considered to be more thorough than a vulnerability scan?
A penetration test goes one step further to vulnerability scan by analysing and exploiting vulnerabilities to demonstrate the extent of an attack as an attacker. It also includes exploiting other systems within the assessment scope using lateral movements and pivoting into restricted systems infiltrating across the networks compromising the entire estate.
Vulnerability assessment vs risk assessment
A vulnerability assessment involves identifying, analysing and quantifying the risks and vulnerabilities in a system.
A risk assessment is carried to identify threats and the likelihood of attack leading towards information exposure or data loss.
Is vulnerability assessment part of a penetration test?
Yes. Vulnerability assessment identifies known security vulnerabilities in the systems. A penetration test is an extension of vulnerability assessment where known security vulnerabilities are exploited in a controller manner to demonstrate the degree to which a threat actor can gain unauthorised access to data.
Is penetration testing part of vulnerability management?
Yes, vulnerability management program includes identification and remediation of security vulnerabilities affecting an environment. Penetration testing within a vulnerability management program is conducted to validate that security issues have been addressed and the environment is safe from any known threats.
Regulatory requirements and security standards mandate the importance of conducting regular vulnerability scanning and penetration testing.
CIS control 3 includes critical control ‘Continuous vulnerability management’ to identify, remediate and minimise the window of opportunity for attackers. PCI DSS penetration tests are often performed once a year to help
Regular assessments are required as critical controls mandated by PCI DSS to protect CDE systems and data. PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard) state the penetration testing requirements as:
- PCI Requirement 6.6 states protecting internet-facing applications from new threats and vulnerabilities on an ongoing basis.
- PCI Requirement 11 outlines ‘regularly test security systems and processes’.
While you have read about differences between penetration testing and vulnerability scanning, both forms of assessments are essential to cyber security strategy. Vulnerability assessments and penetration testing are used within the same environment in different formats and scopes to add value to the vulnerability management program. For instance, vulnerability assessments may be a better choice while scanning the mass networks and applications to identify common vulnerabilities at scale. It saves cost and time by not utilising penetration testing that is costly and time-intensive. Third party penetration testing is the best approach while considering internal environments such as corporate networks, active directory environments to be aware of the unknown risks and plan a security roadmap for internal hygiene. It helps to know the severity of risks affecting your environment from inside as well as outside (internet facing).
Get in touch to discuss your primary security concerns. We offer a free consultation to help you make informed choices about your environment while providing flexibility and transparency around deliverables, costs and time frames.